Rules of the Road For Cyclists (and Motorists)
Victims of bicycle-to-auto accidents are a... special breed. I am a [four-time] member of the club, and am still thankfully walking, not to mention riding. As I've mentioned elsewhere, I took a break from cycling for more than 15 years, but recently took the habit up again. For the past several years I'd been considering riding again. Two essential factors held me in check:
Until you've had a close call (or 30) with a motorist while on a bicycle you'll probably be relatively oblivious to the danger of mingling with drivers on our fair roads. If you ride long enough, or frequently enough, the sad fact is that it will probably happen to you. You'll get cut off - or worse - by someone distracted, confused or careless, or, and yes absolutely it does happen, you'll do something boneheaded and irresponsible yourself and you'll have an unwelcome run-in.
What I'm writing today is the product of ~25 years off and on of riding a bike in and out of traffic in various cities and burgs across the nation. The points offered below make up my formed opinion - an opinion honed by experience - but an opinion nonetheless. I'm not a lawyer, civil engineer or urban planner. I'm a guy who rides a bike and drives a car and who, over the course of my life, have been involved in four very serious accidents involving motorists while riding my bike and literally hundreds of near-accidents otherwise. I've raced competitively; I've also had my fair share of crashes in the peleton. I've gotten hurt. In a few cases I've been lucky to come out alive. I'm hoping that what I'll put down today will help both the cyclist and the motorist sharing the road. As gas prices continue to creep upward and towns become slowly but increasingly more bike-friendly, you're going to see more bikes out on the road. Let's try to avoid mayhem, shall we?
Important keys to staying safe on the road follow:
- The time (and money) I knew I'd devote to the activity, to training, to futzing with greasy sprockets and such.
- The prospect of again riding in traffic.
Okay. In no particular order, unless in the course of writing I find some, I offer the following practical rules for cyclists riding in traffic, be it urban, rural, or somewhere in between. While I think there needs to be HUGE improvement in education for motorists on sharing the road with cyclists, I think there's equal (if not more) opportunity to educate cyclists on safe riding practices. So that's where I'll concentrate the majority of this manifesto, as it were.
- Cyclists and motorists must understand that a cyclist has the same rights on the road as a motorist. Not all motorists grok this point, and a fair number of cyclists don't seem to either.
- As such (1), a cyclist must ride safely and lawfully on the road. Recent likely law changes in Maine, where I live, for example, will make it much easier to ticket cyclists when they disobey traffic laws. This is a good - and fair - thing.
- As such (1), motorists must give cyclists a break and safely share the road. This is easier to do when you live in a town that has bike lanes (though they're not always any safer and in many cases confuse motorists and, in some cases, cyclists), but even on a two- or one-lane road, the rules are the same. We must coexist safely.
- Cyclists must understand that even though they have the same rights to the road as a motorist, it ain't gonna happen. Yes, I said it. One of the biggest keys to staying safe on a bike in traffic is realizing that, until the number of bikes approach the number of cars on the road, which also ain't gonna happen, cyclists are a minority and due to all sorts of factors, must ride defensively. Cyclists must be prepared to deal with motorists who are either misinformed, uneducated, partially blind, distracted, in a hurry or, in the most unfortunate cases, psychopathic. All the rights in the world don't help [much] when you're flat under a truck. Cyclists must do their best to avoid stupid and dangerous situations. Cyclists must also do their best not to cause them.
- An us vs. them attitude is very dangerous. Self-righteousness doesn't work well in traffic. Car heavy, hard, fast. Car win. Stuff the pride and indignance. Go Ghandi. Be safe.
Some die-hard cyclists and cyclist advocate folk might feel that I've been a bit harsh on cyclists here (vs. motorists, at any rate), that I might be diminishing the attention being more and more prominently paid to cyclists' rights, that I might be glossing over the fact that cyclists are being killed on roads due to unconscionably negligent motorists. As a survivor of numerous accidents, I'd agree that these situations unfortunately exist. But I'll still beg to differ with many on the best ways to address the problems.
As I've mentioned, I believe that an "us vs. them" attitude to a complex set of issues isn't the right tactic and only serves to increase danger and resentment on the road. I also believe that as much as motorists need to be educated about rights and laws, so do cyclists.
I still drive a car, and I still see a frightening number of cyclists (and not just the spendy-kitted, high-end club riders and racers at whom I took a few pot-shots above) doing some really, really stupid stuff in traffic. I feel that it's far more realistic to address matters within the cyclist's control (i.e., that cyclists can change), than it is to force a huge population of motorists to consider a whole range of issues (and how to do that effectively, really?) the overwhelming majority of whom really don't care to ponder (and some never will, no matter the consequence). After one of my accidents many years ago there was a little bit of media coverage on the issue in my hometown. Instead of support or sympathy, I received several death threats (in the days before caller ID) and general admonitions to "keep my ass off the road or get it squashed." Some people will never get it.
The fact remains that the vast majority of traffic on the road is of the motor variety, and in order to survive, cyclists need to ride defensively and be highly aware. Doing so requires some practice and experience, and a lot of tolerance. Sorta like life.
Some great resources on cycling in traffic follow. More as I find them. Feel free to send yours along or yak at me otherwise.
Oh yes. Make no mistake. Cycling are fun. Be safe and enjoy.
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- CYCLISTS: RIDE WITH TRAFFIC. NOT AGAINST IT. This is The #1 Sin and I see it committed far too often. It will get you killed. The violator has almost always confused the old saw of "pedestrians should walk against traffic so as to be visible and be able to observe oncoming traffic" (a truism) with the falsehood that this advice applies to cyclists. It absolutely does not apply to cyclists. When you ride against traffic you are removing yourself from the natural observational view of motorists and placing yourself in serious peril, particularly at intersections. Your rate of travel on a bicycle is appreciably faster (one would hope) than your walking or running rate of travel and thus your stopping distance is going to be significantly further. When I was in my late teens I saw a cyclist riding against traffic literally get run over in front of my eyes at an intersection by a turning vehicle. This video discusses (among other things) the reason riding against traffic is extremely dangerous for cyclists and motorists (pick up the relevant portion at 4:33). When I pass a cyclist on the wrong side of the road I try to kindly correct them. Cyclists should ride WITH traffic.
- Wear a freakin' helmet. There is no excuse not to wear one these days. You can buy reasonable protection for your noggin for ~$30+-. Helmets that cost more generally have more features, though the lightest weight (not a bad thing) and most expensive ones often offer less protection. At any rate, there are many middle-of-the-road, adequate designs on the market. In a growing number of states helmet use is required. Once a topic of "don't tread on me" debate, the general consensus is that helmets save cyclists' lives. Head trauma in cycling accidents is very common. In my first car-to-bike accident I was flipped, after sliding across two lanes of traffic at 30mph, upside down into oncoming traffic. Luckily, and I'm not intending to be ironic, I landed on my spine. I wasn't wearing a helmet (hardly anyone did in those days). It could have been worse. I've worn a helmet since (and designs have gotten much, much better). You should wear one too.
- Ride on the road, not on the sidewalk. Despite the fact that you'll occasionally hear the opposite "advice" shouted at you when riding a bike, sidewalks are for pedestrians. You can seriously injure someone when you ride a bike on a sidewalk. You aren't doing other cyclists any favors by riding on sidewalks. In some cities it's illegal. Increase visibility for cyclists. Ride - with care - on the road. Cyclists do have this right.
- Leave the iPod at home. When you plug up your ears while riding you are denying yourself one of your most important senses in avoiding an accident. It should be obvious by that statement which of the five senses I'm identifying. So don't rock out to your fave tunes while operating machinery. When you ride a bike with earphones on you are riding as, or perhaps even more irresponsibly, than motorists who plow down the highway at 90mph in heavy traffic while screaming into a cell phone. It's one thing to warm up or work out on a stationary trainer while listening to headphones. It's ridiculously dangerous while riding outdoors. Being able to gauge the position of motorists around you by using your hearing is a very important and potentially life-saving skill.
- Be aware. Obvious, yes? Should be. Still, many cyclists are oblivious. Pay attention to traffic. Pay attention at intersections. Be ready to give way or stop if necessary. Obey traffic laws. Ride defensively.
- Be visible, or, "I never even saw you." For a lot of people new to cycling, the clothing is a barrier. Why wear day-glow lycra? Why wear a brightly-colored ice cream cone on your head? What's with the shorts? To be brief (oh, punny), cycling clothing is generally functional for the activity of cycling. The shorts are constructed in such a way that riding is comfortable - chafing, posterior pain and such is minimized. (People who wear bike shorts to walk down the street or grocery shop creep me out too.) Jerseys are worn because they wick away sweat and keep the cyclist cool[er]. Helmets look like they do these days because of aerodynamic benefit (reducing drag against the head is important for various reasons) and because their construction is a factor in encouraging air flow past the head, again, keeping the rider cool. The colors - bright yellows and greens to put a finer point on it - exist, among other reasons, to make the cyclist visible to motorists. In my four accidents, every single motorist who hit me said the same thing: "I never even saw you." It is imperative that a cyclist be visible. You can become more visible by using clothing, reflectors, lights, and by riding defensively, yes, but at the same time asserting your space on the road, however small it might be. More on this is a few. The big takeaway needs to be this: Motorists are not accustomed to looking out for cyclists. That's just the way it is. Educational efforts are underway, but the fact is that cyclists must do everything possible to make themselves visible to motorists. Including dressing like they once played keyboards for Kajagoogoo. It is the cross we bear.
- Avoid riding in traffic when possible. Another simpleton remark? Yes. Sorta. When I was in my mid-teens a local former pro racer named Rich Carlson (or was it Jim? So long ago... I'm gonna go with Rich for now...) took me under his wing. During the course of a few rides I mentioned to Rich that I'd been in a series of accidents on the bike. For whatever reason, at that age I wore my experiences as a sort of a badge of honor. I was riding 300+ miles a week, after all. I was out there every day, doing battle on the road. "Sounds to me like you must be doing something wrong," was Rich's assessment. Crushing, yes, but those words stuck with me. Despite the fact that none of my accidents really had any gray areas, all were a result of negligence on the part of the motorist, I realized there were a couple of important things I could do to avoid accidents in the future. One is that I could stop riding in traffic like the self-absorbed maniac that I was. The other was that I could stop riding in or at least limit my riding in high-traffic areas (harder to do if the bike is your chief or only means of transport, though it can still be done - you just may have to ride further). Now, understand that at that time, and at the moment, really, the time I spend on the bike involves long training miles. I'm on the bike to work on nothing other than... being on the bike. I'm riding anywhere from 30-100 miles a day. Usually in the 40-60 mile daily range. This is a lot different, than, say, commuting 5-10 miles to work by bike (and if you do so, and yes I know it's quite possible that you ride much further, bless you), or making a grocery run down the block (it takes talent to carry that food home; kudos to you too). The rules for safety are the same, but the kind of riding you're doing dictates to some extent the approach you take to riding on the road, sharing said road with motorists and so forth. Because I was and am doing long road miles, it behooves me to get out of high-traffic and/or urban areas in favor of more rural locales where I can spend more time thinking about riding the bike and less time worrying about getting into an accident. What this often means is putting the bike in the car and driving to a less traffic-heavy starting location, riding a loop and driving back home. Yes, it would be more eco-responsible to ride the whole way. But it's safer and makes more sense in many cases to avoid riding training miles in heavy traffic. Do some research on the areas in which you intend to train before riding your routes. A number of internet mapping sites will give you traffic density for certain roads. Your local DOT may be able to give you useful information as well. Many local bike clubs publish this kind of data for their members and the riding public at large. Now I will say, having an accident out in rural areas is still very much a possibility, and in some cases... let's just say the traffic, while less frequent, may be no less friendly than you'd find in Midtown. You still have to ride safely, wherever you're spinning.
- Turning traffic and intersections in general are the biggest hotspots. As a cyclist, every single time you approach an intersection or a turning opportunity you must be ready for potential calamity. The fact is, again, motorists are not looking out for you. They're looking for other cars. There it is. Over and done. Accept it. Deal with this fact by being very much aware of motorists turning left across traffic into you (the most common car-to-bike accident), coming by past you and cutting you off when they turn right in front of you (the "right hook"), or turning directly in to and t-boning you as they ignore stop or yield signs. A sadly too common occurrence is the motorist who considers a cyclist to be the equivalent of a pedestrian, able and more or less required to stop on a dime and let the motorist continue, without stopping themselves, on their way. Would they do the same to another motorist? Possibly, but probably not. Be ready to brake, swerve, yell, whatever it takes. Often if I'm in a situation in which I'm not riding at a high rate of speed or would otherwise be seriously inconvenienced by slowing or stopping (like going up a hill, where to stop or slow is to re-start by turning around, going back down and coming back up), I'll slow down and very clearly wave a motorist through at an intersection. Most appreciate the gesture, though occasionally I've had someone get smart-arsed with me ("Oh, can I go now?") or not understand, leading to that silly little yo-yo dance we all occasionally experience in cars at four-way stops when it's not clear who arrived first. "No you go. No, you. No, seriously, you. What is wrong with you? Go. I said Go!" And then everyone goes together, at the same time... But I digress. Former racer, framebuilder and accident survivor Dave Moulton has some great info on his site about riding safely through intersections and turns. Other than the unpardonable sin of riding against traffic, in which case you're already asking to be measured for a coffin, intersections and turning traffic are by far the biggest danger areas for cyclists.
- Carry identification and a cell phone. Whenever I ride I carry a small, water-resistant wallet in my jersey pocket (another reason why cycling clothing works - being able to carry stuff) with the following items: 1) ID card, including information on who to contact in the event of an accident (multiple contacts are listed and are a good idea - as is listing your blood type if you know that information), 2) insurance card, 3) emergency cash and/or credit card. In the event of an accident, you'll need this stuff. If, God forbid, you're unconscious, whomever bothers to stop and/or help will need to identify you. Also, in a small, saddle-attached bag, in addition to a spare tube and a few other necessaries, I carry a cell phone. In the days before cell phones (remember those?), having an accident or [series of] flats in a rural area could mean a very long walk to a pay phone (remember those?), or worse. With cell phones, at least you have some insurance. Turn the cell phone off.
- Hold your line. An incredibly important skill when it comes to riding in general, riding in a group of cyclists and riding in traffic specifically is the ability to ride in a straight line. Practice. Ride the white line on a road. Ride with other cyclists and practice riding straight and predictably single-file. The key here is riding predictably. Nothing freaks a motorist out more than a cyclist weaving all over the road. If a driver can't safely (yes, I use the term loosely) pass a cyclist and be on their way - which you, as a cyclist, want - chances are at some point they're going to get angry and/or aggressive. You can limit confusion and altercations significantly if you ride a bike in a predictable, relatively straight line. Certainly you have the right to avoid potholes, drainage grates, downed limbs, broken glass and the like. It's all a matter of degrees. Look up the road as you ride. Make small, incremental adjustments to your line, just as you would in driving a car, to avoid obstacles. Turn your head and look behind you to make sure you're clear. It takes practice but the skill is essential. Suddenly swerving generally means you weren't paying attention. Doing so with a vehicle behind you is asking for trouble. Ride predictably.
- Get out of the middle of the road. Yes, as a cyclist you have the same rights to the road as a someone driving an automobile. In some states a bike is recognized as a vehicle. You are worthy. Still, it makes no practical sense, when the crux of riding in many areas is avoiding an accident, an injury or altercation, to smugly hog up the entire lane, or road for that matter. It's idiotic, and the practice is damaging to all cyclists. Sadly, when I see this, it's usually one of a couple of groups of people: 1) newbie cyclists or families just wanting to enjoy being on a bike and who don't know any better, and I usually give these people a pass, though they need to be educated too; 2) far more annoying are the moneyed, full-tilt mid-lifers on $8,000+ custom frames with carbon, ceramic and titanium gee-gaws at every seam and juncture who should, and probably do know better than to ride two- and three-abreast on narrow, two-lane roads with their similarly outfitted Walter Mitty companions, but who feel some sense of entitlement and/or "I-feel-prettiness" and just won't step on the cranks for three revolutions, stop the inane chatting about their hedge fund or their recent trip to Capri, get their ass in gear and ride in an efficient paceline, which, by the by, would let a long line of incredibly ticked off motorists who have accumlated behind them to pass on by. Join a bike club, or at least join in on a group ride if you crave this sort of attention (clubs are a great thing, as are group rides; don't get me wrong). If on the club rides you observe unsafe or unlawful riding by the group, say something. If nothing improves, find another group. Most clubs take safe riding very seriously. You may find that a few riders take more risks than others and you'll probably find the occasional squirrelly and/or unindoctrinated pedal pusher. Usually more responsible riders will keep these folks in check. It's okay to ride two-abreast, for what it's worth. It's okay to trade pulls and rotate through a paceline. But only when it's safe to do so, and not in rush hour traffic. When you hear "car back," you move over. That's the way it works. The last rider in the group (frequently me, these days) passes the word up the line. You have the right to the road, but not all of it, all of the time. Don't screw it up for the rest of us.
- Leave yourself room. While you don't want to camp out in the center of the road, my advice at the same time is to not ride so far to the right (in the U.S., of course; Brits please kindly reverse your hands) that, in the event you need to either duck off right a bit further, slow down, stop, etc., you don't have the room. What this means is riding maybe 6"-12" to the left of the right-side white line (if there is one, otherwise, read: side of road) on a two-lane road with no shoulder (if there is a shoulder, depending on the depth, traffic, glass and debris accumulated on said shoulder, I'll ride 6"-12" inside of the white line). At least where I live and ride, the majority of rural roads are shoulder-less, and frequently would cause injury if one were to veer off them into a yawning ditch or worse, even if one had superior bike-handling skills. The solution is to find that middle ground between being out of the way of the majority of motorists who know how to pass you safely, staying visible and being, yes, I'll use the word finally, aggressive [enough] with your position that it's clear to everyone that you are in your space and won't be wilting off the road via attempted telepathic control. This takes practice, experience and a bit of confidence. A few things that I do to assert myself:
- While holding my line and constantly listening for traffic behind and ahead of me (and to either side), I'll use my outside elbow to mark a little territory into traffic. I'm not coming off my line, my body stays put and my wheels track continuously ahead, but I'll point that elbow out slightly into traffic to say, "Hey, I'm here." Elbow still intact.
- Predictably use hand signals (left turn, right turn, slowing) at turns. Use these to signal your intentions to motorists and other cyclists (with whom you should also use verbal signals, i.e., "right turn, left turn, slowing, stopping, clear, car back, car up," etc.). Always check to make sure it's safe before doing so, but move into the center of the lane before making a turn. Don't dart across a lane suddenly. Be aware that even when you use these hand signals, some motorists won't understand what you're doing, or they'll just ignore you and bully on through. Always be looking for a way out. When you make a turn, particularly if it's sharp, turn into your own lane. If a car is coming up into the lane into which you're turning because you wanted to take the corner like a pro, life may soon suck for you. This kind of technique (taking sharp, inside-out turn lines) is appropriate in a race, on a closed or monitored course. It's not safe on live roads. Observe the yellow line rule: don't cross it.
- I frequently look behind me to see if I have company. This can be a subtle move, or a big, deliberate one, depending. One thing to note is that if you're wearing sunglasses when riding - which you should, to protect your eyes from all manner of detritus - not all sunglass frames are appropriate or safe for riding. In particular, frames that are chunky or closed around the temple create a blind spot for the rider when turning the head to look behind. It's a bit of marketing, but it also has a purpose: cycling-specific glasses, those with wide, unobstructed peripheral views, work better and are safer for cyclists. Be mindful that when you turn your head over your left shoulder to look for following traffic, which you should do often, the tendency is for your bike to pull slightly left as well as you shift your weight. Newbies to gander-taking may experience "paper boy"-like swerves into traffic. You'll want to avoid this. A few things that work, and as always will take a little bit of practice, are looking under your arm or even raising your rear end for a look under your body, or removing the left hand from the handlebars, placing it on your left thigh, and turning your head. Both techniques allow you to have a look behind while holding your line. Practice and perfect. Very important. If you just don't feel comfortable turning and looking, get a helmet- or bar-attached rearview mirror and use it.
- Be aware that cars are bigger these days and that many rural roads weren't built to safely accommodate their width. On my rides I see lots of SUVs, lots of minivans. Lots of truck traffic, especially in more rural areas and those where construction is happening. While you want to leave yourself room, you just may not have it. Motorists don't always calculate the width of their cars accurately as they zing past you (or they just don't care). One of the most dangerous situations, especially on a two-lane road with no shoulder, is the motorist behind you who feels they simply must pass you before oncoming traffic (which you're both approaching) passes them in turn. What this can create in the worst of situations is a head-on logjam, where the car behind you attempts to pass, moving slightly into the oncoming lane, realizes too late that they don't have the acceleration to pass safely and avoid an oncoming collision, and now, most unfortunate for the cyclist, is forced to compensate by cutting right in to the rider, either making contact or forcing the cyclist off the road. It amazes me how often this happens. I'm becoming convinced that there's something innate in certain drivers that makes them discard the "I have the obstruction [even though a cyclist is not an obstruction], I therefore must wait to pass" rule of the road. It's one of the most obvious and most dangerous situations - putting three separate parties at simultaneous risk - yet it happens to me nearly every time I ride. The absolute worst is up a hill, where the following car can't see oncoming traffic and begins to pass (grossly negligent), or around a curve in the same circumstance (or a combination of the two). What it boils down to is absent-mindedness and carelessness. As a cyclist your only defense is to be aware in these situations. Slow down, speed up, do what it takes. I will frequently use a hand signal to the car behind me to slow, especially if I sense they're going to try to pass in a situation where they don't have a clear view of oncoming traffic. I'll also wave a car through if it's clear to me that they can pass safely. This is particularly useful to motorists on curvy roads, specifically on those where I am descending at a [relatively] high rate of speed and might be taking up a bit more of a lane in the interest of safety (my own). You have to be careful here, however. It's really, really bad form to wave someone through and realize too late that the road isn't clear after all. If you need to control your speed (i.e., slow down and let a motorist pass), get out of the crouch you were in and sit up on the bike. More frontal body mass against the wind will slow you down. Avoid suddenly and forcrefully braking. Sit up and "feather" (alternate quickly and lightly applying pressure to either brake lever) the brakes to control speed. Practice these valuable techniques while descending.
- Make eye contact. Yell if you have to. This advice has been around for a long time. It can be effective. I try to be very alert when I approach merging or 45-degree turn lanes. Frequently a motorist will be leaving a gas station, strip mall, etc., and will perform a "rolling stop" as they enter into the roadway... and I'm right there. I'll do my best staredown as I approach these situations. If I see that they're not looking and are continuing to roll, I'll yell "Hello!" I may look like an idiot, but I don't care. If they're simply not in possession of their faculties, I'll brake. It's not worth getting in an accident. A cyclist has to be ready for these situations. They happen incredibly frequently. It's not that motorists are inherently evil. They're just not looking out for you.
- Be courteous. I've had trash and various weighty objects hurled at me. Lots of honking. Yelling at. The [very] occasional whistle. I've also been hit four times and been in scads of other potentially life-threatening situations. It's not worth an altercation. Car will win. Yes, at least 10 times during every long ride I find myself muttering "would it have killed you to have waited half a second more?" I get it. I also have what I'd like to think is a decent bigger picture perspective. If more cyclists would be aware of the issues posed by riding in traffic, would realize that most motorists are either confused or just plain clueless about how to share the road, and if more cyclists would do simple things like giving a "thank you" wave when a motorist patiently waits for them as they pass (at a much slower relative speed most of the time, let's be honest) through an intersection (no, you don't owe it, but you can still give a wave, and it's easy) or showing a little gratitude when a driver consciously waits to pass until it's safe to do so, maybe while a cyclist has weaved slightly further into a lane to avoid an obstruction, like a parked car or road construction, the roads would undoubtedly begin to be safer and less adversarial for everyone. It doesn't take much.
- Join a bike club, take a course. If you're new to cycling, there are many educational resources available to you, formal (coursework) and informal (group rides, online information). One of the great joys of riding a bike is enjoying your time on the road with other cyclists. I've had the good fortune to ride with some great and experienced riders and racers. Go thee and find same. A good place to start is your local bike shop. You'll learn a lot.
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